Signal transmission in neurons goes along with changes in the transmembrane potential. To report them, different approaches, including optical voltage-sensing dyes and genetically encoded voltage indicators, have evolved. Here, we present a DNA nanotechnology-based system and demonstrate its functionality on liposomes. Using DNA origami, we incorporated and optimized different properties such as membrane targeting and voltage sensing modularly. As a sensing unit, we used a hydrophobic red dye anchored to the membrane and an anionic green dye at the DNA to connect the nanostructure and the membrane dye anchor. Voltage-induced displacement of the anionic donor unit was read out by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) changes of single sensors attached to liposomes. A FRET change of ∼5% for ΔΨ = 100 mV was observed. The working mechanism of the sensor was rationalized by molecular dynamics simulations. Our approach holds potential for an application as nongenetically encoded membrane sensors.