The interplay between nucleic acids and lipids underpins several key processes in molecular biology, synthetic biotechnology, vaccine technology, and nanomedicine. These interactions are often electrostatic in nature, and much of their rich phenomenology remains unexplored in view of the chemical diversity of lipids, the heterogeneity of their phases, and the broad range of relevant solvent conditions. Here we unravel the electrostatic interactions between zwitterionic lipid membranes and DNA nanostructures in the presence of physiologically relevant cations, with the purpose of identifying new routes to program DNA−lipid complexation and membrane-active nanodevices. We demonstrate that this interplay is influenced by both the phase of the lipid membranes and the valency of the ions and observe divalent cation bridging between nucleic acids and gel-phase bilayers. Furthermore, even in the presence of hydrophobic modifications on the DNA, we find that cations are still required to enable DNA adhesion to liquid-phase membranes. We show that the latter mechanism can be exploited to control the degree of attachment of cholesterol-modified DNA nanostructures by modifying their overall hydrophobicity and charge. Besides their biological relevance, the interaction mechanisms we explored hold great practical potential in the design of biomimetic nanodevices, as we show by constructing an ion-regulated DNA-based synthetic enzyme.